Taste-aversion learning A biological constraint on learning in which an organism learns in one trial to avoid a food whose ingestion is followed by illness.
Temporal lobe Region of brain found below the lateral fissure; contains auditory cortex.
Tend-and-befriend response A response to stressors that is hypothesized to be typical for females; stressors prompt females to protect their offspring and join social groups to reduce vulnerability.
Terminal buttons The bulblike structures at the branched endings of axons that contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitters.
Testosterone The male sex hormone, secreted by the testes, that stimulates production of sperm and is also responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics.
Test-retest reliability A measure of the correlation between the scores of the same people on the same test given on two different occasions.
Thalamus The brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) A projective test in which pictures of ambiguous scenes are presented to an individual, who is encouraged to generate stories about them.
Theory An organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena.
Theory of ecological optics A theory of perception that emphasizes the richness of stimulus information and views the perceiver as an active explorer of the environment.
Think-aloud protocols Reports made by experimental participants of the mental processes and strategies they use while working on a task.
Three-term contingency The means by which organisms learn that, in the presence of some stimuli but not others, their behavior is likely to have a particular effect on the environment.
Timbre The dimension of auditory sensation that reflects the complexity of a sound wave.
Tolerance A situation that occurs with continued use of a drug in which an individual requires greater dosages to achieve the same effect.
Top-down processing Perceptual processes in which information from an individual's past experience, knowledge, expectations, motivations, and background influence the way a perceived object is interpreted and classified.
Traits Enduring personal qualities or attributes that influence behavior across situations.
Transduction Transformation of one form of energy into another; for example, light is transformed into neural impulses.
Transfer-appropriate processing The perspective that suggests that memory is best when the type of processing carried out at encoding matches the processes carried out at retrieval.
Transference The process by which a person in psychoanalysis attaches to a therapist feelings formerly held toward some significant person who figured in a past emotional conflict.
Trichromatic theory The theory that there are three types of color receptors that produce the primary color sensations of red, green, and blue.
Type A behavior pattern A complex pattern of behaviors and emotions that includes excessive emphasis on competition, aggression, impatience, and hostility; hostility increases the risk of coronary heart disease.
Type B behavior pattern As compared to Type A behavior pattern, a less competitive, less aggressive, less hostile pattern of behavior and emotion.
Type C behavior pattern A constellation of behaviors that may predict which individuals are more likely to develop cancer or to have their cancer progress quickly; these behaviors include passive acceptance and self-sacrifice.