Echoic memory Sensory memory that allows auditory information to be stored for brief durations.
Ego The aspect of personality involved in self-preservation activities and in directing instinctual drives and urges into appropriate channels.
Ego defense mechanisms Mental strategies (conscious or unconscious) used by the ego to defend itself against conflicts experienced in the normal course of life.
Egocentrism In cognitive development, the inability of a young child at the preoperational stage to take the perspective of another person.
Elaboration likelihood model A theory of persuasion that defines how likely it is that people will focus their cognitive processes to elaborate upon a message and therefore follow the central and peripheral routes to persuasion.
Elaborative rehearsal A technique for improving memory by enriching the encoding of information.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) The use of electroconvulsive shock as an effective treatment for severe depression.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) A recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
Emotion A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant.
Emotional intelligence Type of intelligence defined as the abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotions accurately and appropriately, to use emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and analyze emotions, to use emotional knowledge effectively, and to regulate one's emotions to promote both emotional and intellectual growth.
Encoding The process by which a mental representation is formed in memory.
Encoding specificity The principle that subsequent retrieval of information is enhanced if cues received at the time of recall are consistent with those present at the time of encoding.
Endocrine system The network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Engram The physical memory trace for information in the brain.
Environmental variables External influences on behavior.
Episodic memories Long-term memories for autobiographical events and the contexts in which they occurred.
EQ The emotional intelligence counterpart of IQ.
Equity theory A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated to maintain fair and equitable relationships with other relevant persons; also, a model that postulates that equitable relationships are those in which the participants' outcomes are proportional to their inputs.
Erogenous zones Areas of the skin surface that are especially sensitive to stimulation and that give rise to erotic or sexual sensations.
Estrogen The female sex hormone, produced by the ovaries, that is responsible for the release of eggs from the ovaries as well as for the development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics.
Etiology The causes of, or factors related to, the development of a disorder.
Evolutionary perspective The approach to psychology that stresses the importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness, based on the assumption that mental capabilities evolved over millions of years to serve particular adaptive purposes.
Excitatory inputs Information entering a neuron that signals it to fire.
Expectancy effects Results that occur when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to participants the kind of behavior he or she expects to find, thereby creating that expected reaction.
Expectancy theory A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated when they expect their efforts and job performance to result in desired outcomes.
Experience-sampling method An experimental method that assists researchers in describing the typical contents of consciousness; participants are asked to record what they are feeling and thinking whenever signaled to do so.
Experimental methods Research methodologies that involve the manipulation of independent variables in order to determine their effects on the dependent variables.
Explicit uses of memory Conscious efforts to recover information through memory processes.
Extinction In conditioning The weakening of a conditioned association in the absence of a reinforcer or unconditioned stimulus.