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CULINARY ARTS
Cuisine - The foods and methods of preparation traditional to a region or population. The major factors shaping a cuisine are climate, which in large measure determines the native raw materials that are available to the cook; economic conditions, which regulate trade in delicacies and imported foodstuffs; and religious or sumptuary laws, under which certain foods are required or proscribed.  via Britannica.com
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Cooking - The act of using heat to prepare food for consumption. Cooking is as old as civilization itself, and observers have perceived it as both an art and a science. Its history sheds light on the very origins of human settlement, and its variety and traditions reflect unique social, cultural, and environmental influences. The following article traces the evolution of cooking to the advent of national cuisines. See also cuisine; grande cuisine; nouvelle cuisine; molecular gastronomy; culture sections of assorted country articles. via Britannica.com
Baking - The process of cooking by dry heat, especially in some kind of oven. It is probably the oldest cooking method. Bakery products, which include bread, rolls, cookies, pies, pastries, and muffins, are usually prepared from flour or meal derived from some form of grain. Bread, already a common staple in prehistoric times, provides many nutrients in the human diet. via Britannica.com
Frying - The cooking of food in hot fats or oils, usually done with a shallow oil bath in a pan over a fire or as so-called deep fat frying, in which the food is completely immersed in a deeper vessel of hot oil. Because the food is heated through a greasy medium, some authorities consider frying to be technically a dry-heat cooking process. via Britannica.com
Barbecue - An outdoor meal, usually a form of social entertainment, at which meats, fish, or fowl, along with vegetables, are roasted over a wood or charcoal fire. The term also denotes the grill or stone-lined pit for cooking such a meal, or the food itself, particularly the strips of meat. The word “barbecue” came into English via the Spanish, who adopted the term from the Arawak Indians of the Caribbean, to whom the barbacoa was a grating of green wood upon which strips of meat were placed to cook or to dry over a slow fire. via Britannica.com
Broiling - Cooking by exposing food to direct radiant heat, either on a grill over live coals or below a gas burner or electric coil. Broiling differs from roasting and baking in that the food is turned during the process so as to cook one side at a time. Temperatures are higher for broiling than for roasting; the broil indicator of a household range is typically set around 550 °F (288 °C), whereas larger commercial appliances broil between 700 and 1,000 °F (371 and 538 °C). via Britannica.com
Boiling - The cooking of food by immersion in water that has been heated to near its boiling point (212 °F [100 °C] at sea level; at higher altitudes water boils at lower temperatures, the decrease in boiling temperature being approximately one degree Celsius for each 1,000 feet [300 metres]). Water-soluble substances, such as sugar and salt, raise the boiling point of the water). via Britannica.com
Cookbook - The collection of recipes, instructions, and information about the preparation and serving of foods. At its best, a cookbook is also a chronicle and treasury of the fine art of cooking, an art whose masterpieces—created only to be consumed—would otherwise be lost.
Pressure Cooker - A hermetically sealed pot which produces steam heat to cook food quickly. The pressure cooker first appeared in 1679 as Papin’s Digester, named for its inventor, the French-born physicist Denis Papin. The cooker heats water to produce very hot steam which forces the temperature inside the pot as high as 266° F (130° C), significantly higher than the maximum heat possible in an ordinary saucepan. The higher temperature of a pressure cooker penetrates food quickly, reducing cooking time without diminishing vitamin and mineral content. via Britannica.com
Roasting - The cooking, primarily of meats but also of corn ears, potatoes, or other vegetables thus prepared, by exposure to dry radiant heat either over an open fire, within a reflecting-surface oven, or in some cases within surrounding hot embers, sand, or stones. The procedure is comparable to the baking of other foods. See baking. via Britannica.com
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Cookbooks have been written in almost every literate society. One of the most famous of the early ones is the Deipnosophistai (“The Learned Banquet”), a treatise on food and food preparation written in the 2nd century bc by Athenaeus, a Greek gourmet. via Britannica.com